vendredi 5 septembre 2014

Prévention du suicide l’état d’urgence mondial - rapport OMS 2014

L'OMS veut renforcer la prévention du suicide, une "tragédie évitable"
Le suicide est "évitable" et pourtant toutes les 40 secondes, une personne se suicide quelque part dans le monde, regrette l'OMS qui évoque une "tragédie" largement ignorée.
Plus de 800.000 personnes mettent chaque année fin à leurs jours et les tentatives de suicide seraient vingt fois plus nombreuses, affirme l'Organisation mondiale de la santé, dans son premier rapport exhaustif sur cette question publié jeudi à Genève.
L'OMS compile 10 ans de données et de recherches sur le suicide, émanant de pays du monde entier, et espère ainsi "accroître la prise de conscience du véritable enjeu de santé publique que représentent le suicide et les tentatives de suicide".
En outre, l'OMS souhaite que la prévention du suicide figure en meilleure place dans les priorités nationales de santé publique.
Pour le Dr Margaret Chan, directrice générale de l'OMS, "tout suicide est une tragédie, chaque année, plus de 800.000 personnes décèdent en mettant fin à leurs jours et il y a, pour chaque décès, de nombreuses tentatives de suicide".
Selon l'OMS, il y aurait 20 fois plus de tentatives de suicide, que de suicides.
L'impact sur les familles et les proches est "profondément dévastateur", et les effets se sont longtemps sentir après le suicide du proche.
- Deux fois plus d'hommes que de femmes -
Le suicide affecte "les populations les plus vulnérables de la planète, et plus particulièrement les groupes sociaux qui souffrent déjà de la marginalisation et de discrimination", relève l'OMS.
Par ailleurs, le suicide affecte encore plus lourdement les pays à revenu faible ou moyen, là où les ressources sont insuffisantes pour détecter et prendre en charge des personnes en détresse.
Le suicide est devenu ainsi un "problème de santé publique majeur auquel il faut s'attaquer impérativement, sans plus attendre", selon l'OMS.
L'OMS regrette que le suicide ne figure que "très rarement au rang des priorités en matière de santé publique", en raison du "tabou et de la stigmatisation" qui y sont associés.
Ce rapport de près de 100 pages a pour but d'encourager les pays qui ont pris des mesures pour prévenir le suicide, et à placer cette question "à l'ordre du jour".
Selon l'OMS, "des interventions et un traitement efficaces et opportuns, peuvent contribuer à prévenir le suicide et les tentatives de suicide".
Les États membres de l'OMS se sont engagés à réduire de 10% leur taux de suicide d'ici à 2020.
En 2012, le taux de suicide dans le monde a été de 11,4 pour 100.000 habitants. Il y a deux fois plus d'hommes qui se suicident que de femmes.
Dans le monde, le suicide représente 50% des morts violentes chez les hommes et 71% chez les femmes.
Les taux de suicide les plus élevés sont enregistrés chez les personnes âgées de plus de 70 ans, dans pratiquement toutes les régions du monde.
Par ailleurs, le suicide est la 2ème cause de mortalité chez les jeunes âgés de 15 à 29 ans.
La plupart du temps, les gens se suicident en avalant des insecticides, par pendaison ou par armes à feu.
L'OMS a également recensé des facteurs de risques qui, cumulés, peuvent accentuer la vulnérabilité d'une personne au comportement suicidaire.
Il s'agit notamment de l'accès facile à des moyens de suicide, et la stigmatisation des personnes qui recherchent de l'aide.
L'OMS dénonce aussi les "descriptions inappropriées ou sensationnalistes du suicide dans les médias", qui ne font qu'accroître le risque de suicide mimétique.
Les médias devraient avoir une "couverture responsable" des cas de suicide, selon l'OMS, et ne pas "décrire en détail les actes suicidaires, et éviter toute dramatisation ou glorification, minimiser l'importance des reportages consacrés au suicide et éviter les simplifications excessives".
L'OMS relève enfin que l'utilisation d'internet et des médias sociaux pourrait "constituer une stratégie universelle de prévention du suicide".
"Les forums de discussion en ligne avec des professionnels consacrés aux personnes suicidaires, les programmes d'auto-assistance et la thérapie en ligne sont les meilleurs exemples de stratégie virtuelle de prévention du suicide", conclut l'OMS.



Preventing suicide: A global imperative

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Authors:
World Health Organization

Publication details

Number of pages: 92
Publication date: 2014
Languages: Arabic, English, French, Japanese, Russian
ISBN: 978 92 4 156477 9
 Le rapport en Français


Voir aussi en complément
 http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/131801/1/9789242564778_fre.pdf?ua=1&ua=1


 Le communiqué de l'OMS

First WHO report on suicide prevention

WHO calls for coordinated action to reduce suicides worldwide

News release
More than 800 000 people die by suicide every year – around one person every 40 seconds, according to WHO's first global report on suicide prevention, published today. Some 75% of suicides occur in low- and middle-income countries.
Pesticide poisoning, hanging and firearms are among the most common methods of suicide globally. Evidence from Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, the United States and a number of European countries reveals that limiting access to these means can help prevent people dying by suicide. Another key to reducing deaths by suicide is a commitment by national governments to the establishment and implementation of a coordinated plan of action. Currently, only 28 countries are known to have national suicide prevention strategies.

Suicide is a global phenomenon

“This report is a call for action to address a large public health problem which has been shrouded in taboo for far too long”.
Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General.
Suicide occurs all over the world and can take place at almost any age. Globally, suicide rates are highest in people aged 70 years and over. In some countries, however, the highest rates are found among the young. Notably, suicide is the second leading cause of death in 15-29 year-olds globally.
“This report is a call for action to address a large public health problem which has been shrouded in taboo for far too long” said Dr Margaret Chan, Director-General of WHO.
Generally, more men die by suicide than women. In richer countries, three times as many men die by suicide than women. Men aged 50 years and over are particularly vulnerable.
In low- and middle-income countries, young adults and elderly women have higher rates of suicide than their counterparts in high-income countries. Women over 70 years old are more than twice as likely to die by suicide than women aged 15-29 years.

Suicides are preventable

Reducing access to means of suicide is one way to reduce deaths. Other effective measures include responsible reporting of suicide in the media, such as avoiding language that sensationalizes suicide and avoiding explicit description of methods used, and early identification and management of mental and substance use disorders in communities and by health workers in particular.
Follow-up care by health workers through regular contact, including by phone or home visits, for people who have attempted suicide, together with provision of community support, are essential, because people who have already attempted suicide are at the greatest risk of trying again.
“...effective measures can be taken, even just starting at local level and on a small-scale”.
Dr Alexandra Fleischmann, Scientist in the Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse at WHO
“No matter where a country currently stands in suicide prevention”, said Dr Alexandra Fleischmann, Scientist in the Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse at WHO, “effective measures can be taken, even just starting at local level and on a small-scale”.
WHO recommends countries involve a range of government departments in developing a comprehensive coordinated response. High-level commitment is needed not just within the health sector, but also within education, employment, social welfare and judicial departments.
“This report, the first WHO publication of its kind, presents a comprehensive overview of suicide, suicide attempts and successful suicide prevention efforts worldwide. We know what works. Now is the time to act,” said Dr Shekhar Saxena, Director of the Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse at WHO.
The report’s launch comes just a week before World Suicide Prevention Day, observed on 10 September every year. The Day provides an opportunity for joint action to raise awareness about suicide and suicide prevention around the world.

Working towards a global target

In the WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020, WHO Member States have committed themselves to work towards the global target of reducing the suicide rate in countries by 10% by 2020. WHO’s Mental Health Gap Action Programme, launched in 2008, includes suicide prevention as a priority and provides evidence-based technical guidance to expand service provision in countries.

For more information please contact:

Samantha Bolton
Communications Officer, WHO
Mobile: +41 79 309 82 73
Email: boltons@who.int
Alison Brunier
Communications Officer, World Health Organization
Telephone: +41 22 791 4468
Mobile: +41 979 701 9480
Email: bruniera@who.int

Suicide by WHO region

Suicide in the WHO African Region

In the WHO African Region, the estimated suicide rate was close to the global average of 11.4 per 100 000 in 2012. Comparing estimates for 2000 with those for 2012, there was an increase of 38% in suicide rates in the African Region. Suicide rates are particularly high among the elderly, but there is also a peak among the young. Suicide by intentional pesticide ingestion is among the most common methods of suicide globally, and of particular concern in rural agricultural areas in the African Region.

Suicide in the WHO Region of the Americas

In the WHO Region of the Americas, estimated suicide rates are generally lower than in other WHO regions. However, Guyana is the country with the highest estimated suicide rate for 2012 globally, and Suriname has the sixth highest. Suicide rates in this Region show a first peak among the young, remain at the same level for other age groups and rise again in elderly men. In high-income countries, hanging accounts for 50% of suicides, and firearms are the second most common method, accounting for 18% of suicides. The relatively high proportion of suicides by firearms in high-income countries is primarily driven by high-income countries in the Americas where firearms account for 46% of all suicides; in other high-income countries firearms account for only 4.5% of all suicides.

Suicide in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region

In the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, estimated suicide rates are generally lower than in other WHO regions. However, there is evidence that among certain age groups in this region, suicide rates are relatively high, particularly among young women and men aged 15–29 years, and women and men aged 60 years and above.

Suicide in the WHO European Region

In the WHO European Region, the estimated suicide rate is somewhat above the global average of 11.4 per 100 000 in 2012, and 6 European countries are in the top 20 countries with the highest estimated suicide rates globally. Lithuania has the fifth highest and Kazakhstan has the tenth highest globally. Suicide rates in this Region show a first peak among the young, another for middle-aged men and rise again in the elderly. Of great concern is that suicide is the main cause of death in many European countries for the 15-29 age group. However, European countries are prominent among those that have developed suicide prevention strategies.

Suicide in the WHO South-East Asia Region

In the WHO South-East Asia Region, the estimated suicide rate is the highest as compared to other WHO regions. Suicide rates show a peak among the young and among the elderly. Most suicides in the world occur in the South-East Asia Region (39% of those in low- and middle-income countries in South-East Asia alone) with India accounting for the highest estimated number of suicides overall in 2012. Suicide by intentional pesticide ingestion is among the most common methods of suicide globally, and is of particular concern in rural agricultural areas in the South-East Asia Region.

Suicide in the WHO Western Pacific Region

In the WHO Western Pacific Region, the estimated suicide rate in low- and middle-income countries is lower than the global average of 11.4 per 100 000 in 2012. However, the Republic of Korea is the country with the third highest estimated suicide rate for 2012 globally. Suicide rates in this Region increase steadily with age, with the highest rates among the elderly. A high proportion of suicides in the world occur in the Western Pacific Region (16% in low- and middle-income countries in the Western Pacific alone) with China accounting for the second highest estimated number of suicides overall in 2012. The number of total suicide deaths in the Western Pacific Region is approximately 180 000.
Suicidal behaviour among young people has been a concern in a number of countries, particularly in countries of the Pacific. Low- and middle-income countries in the Western Pacific Region are the only region of the world where the proportion of all deaths due to suicide is greater in females than in males and the rank of suicide as a cause of death is higher in females than in males. Suicide by intentional pesticide ingestion is among the most common methods of suicide globally, and of particular concern in rural agricultural areas in the Western Pacific Region.

Revue de presse

- L'OMS appelle à des efforts concertés pour prévenir le suicide dans le monde - 4/09/2014
http://www.un.org/apps/newsFr/storyF.asp?NewsID=33234&Cr=OMS&Cr1=
- Pendaison, pesticides, armes... Le suicide, un fléau mondial - 4/09/2014
http://www.liberation.fr/monde/2014/09/04/pendaison-pesticides-armes-le-suicide-un-fleau-mondial_1093060

- Une personne se suicide toutes les 40 secondes dans le monde 4/09/2014
http://tempsreel.nouvelobs.com/sante/20140904.OBS8241/une-personne-se-suicide-toutes-les-40-secondes-dans-le-monde.html
- Plus de 800.000 suicides par an dans le monde, les hommes et l'Asie plus touchés - 4/09/2014
http://www.la-croix.com/Actualite/Monde/L-OMS-veut-renforcer-la-prevention-du-suicide-une-tragedie-evitable-2014-09-04-1201160
- L'OMS déclare la guerre au suicide - 4/09/2014
OMS déclare la guerre au suicide
http://www.legeneraliste.fr/actualites/article/2014/09/04/loms-declare-la-guerre-au-suicide_249631 
- Il y a plus de suicides que de morts liées aux guerres dans le monde
4/09/2014 http://www.francetvinfo.fr/sante/il-y-a-plus-de-suicides-que-de-victimes-de-guerre-dans-le-monde_685595.html
- Un suicide toutes les 40 secondes dans le monde - 4/09/2014 https://destinationsante.com/suicide-les-40-secondes-dans-le-monde.html
- Suicide dans le monde : l’OMS appelle à décréter l’état d’urgence
- North Korea's suicide rate among worst in world, says WHO report
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/sep/04/north-korea-suicide-rate-among-worst-world-who-report

1 commentaire:

  1. Hamlet dit que la seule chose qui nous fait supporter les fardeaux de la vie, c'est la peur de ce qu'il y a après la mort.

    De manière générale, moins on cherche de raisons de vivre, et mieux on se porte. Plus on a besoin de raisons pour se raccrocher à l'existence, et plus cela signifie qu'on cherche des compensations imaginaires à la réalité.

    A mon sens, plus on a le courage de vivre et moins on a besoin de raisons.
    La vie n'est qu'un jeu, nous ne sommes qu'une pièce de ce jeu, il ne nous appartient pas de juger de la partie dans son entier.
    Comme le dit Calderon : "la vie est un songe".
    Comme le dit Shakespeare : "nous sommes faits de l'étoffe dont sont faits les songes".

    S'apercevoir que la vie est égale au néant, abandonner toute raison de vivre, abandonner tout espoir de compensation, c'est à mon sens la seule manière d'être heureux de vivre.
    Comme le dit Schopenhauer : "La philosophie n'a pas pour but de nous donner des raisons de vivre."
    Comme le dit Camus : "Il n'y a pas de joie de vivre sans desespoir de vivre."
    Comme le dit enfin Nietzsche : "La joie est plus profonde que la peine."

    Voilà, je ne peux pas faire mieux sur la question.

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